The goddess Juno (Giunone) - the character of ancient Roman mythology, the patroness of marriage, family, motherhood and the feminine. According to legend, Juno was seduced by her brother Jupiter, turning into a cuckoo, they got married and began to rule together. The right hand of the goddess was her sister Minerva - the goddess of wisdom and art. To these three gods, the symbols of the rule of Rome - Juno, Jupiter and Minerva, the ancient Romans built a temple on Capitol Hill (il Campidoglio).
Juno is always depicted with a scepter, a cuckoo companion and a crescent diadem, a symbol of the Moon, which was ruled by the goddess. Juno's body is always covered with rich clothes, except for her face, neck and arms. The goddess is portrayed as a slender, tall, stately woman with large eyes and strict features. Sometimes Juno was portrayed as militant - in a goat skin, a helmet and a spear.
Juno assigned many epithets:
- Virgininiensis - patroness of virgins;
- Lutsina - maternal assistant;
- Sospita - an assistant to the poor;
- Calendar - the patroness of the beginning of the months;
- Rumina is an assistant in feeding;
- Fulgura - throwing lightning;
- Pronouga is the patroness of marriage rites;
- Coin - giving advice, warning.
The legend of geese
The appearance of the epithet Coin is associated with the legend of the geese who saved Rome. According to legend, in the 5th century BC between the Romans and the Etruscans a ten-year war broke out. The Romans brought the trophy from the captured city of Vejo - a statue of the Etruscan goddess, who appeared to one of the soldiers' squad and made a sign of blessing. In honor of this, the Temple of Juno was built on Capitol Hill, where domestic geese were sacrificed. In 390 BC the fortress of the Capitol was surrounded by enemies, then the geese woke the leader of the fortress and Rome was saved. Since then, it was believed that Juno warned the Romans and saved from death, and the goddess became the patroness of the Roman Empire.
Mint and temples
In 269 BC in the temple of Juno they founded the first Mint of Rome, where they issued a silver denarius with the image of the goddess and her name. It was after the opening of the mint that the word "coin" came into use, and in many languages the words denoting money are consonant with "coin", for example, English money.
Many ancient Roman coins can be seen in the Palazzo Massimo - we recommend.
Now on the site of the Temple of Juno stands the magnificent old church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, which we visit during walks in Rome at dawn.
Another temple of Juno was located on Esquilino Hill (L'Esquilino), where on March 1, holidays were held in honor of the goddess - matronalia. Married women, accompanied by slaves, solemnly brought flower wreaths to the temple, where they prayed for family well-being, received gifts from husbands.