Gaius Julius Caesar (Gaius Iulius Caesar) - commander, politician, writer, dictator, high priest of Ancient Rome. He came from the ancient Roman clan of the ruling class and consistently sought all government posts, led the line of political opposition to the senatorial aristocracy. He was merciful, but sent to execution a number of his main opponents.
Rod Yuliev came from a noble family, which, according to legend, came from the goddess Venus.
Mother Julius Caesar - Aurelius Kotta (Avrelia Kotta) was from a noble and wealthy family Aurelius. My paternal grandmother came from the ancient Roman family Marciev (Marcii). Ancus Marcius was the fourth king of ancient Rome from 640 to 616. BC e.
Childhood and youth
Accurate data on the time of the emperor’s birth did not reach us. Today it is generally accepted that he was born in 100 BC. e.However, the German historian Theodor Mommsen (Theodor Mommsen) believes that it was 102 BC. e., and the French historian Jerome Carcopino (Jerome Carcopino) points to 101 BC. e. Birthday is considered both July 12 and 13.
Guy Julius childhood passed in the poor ancient Roman region of Subura (Subura). Parents gave their son a good education, he studied Greek, poetry and oratory, learned to swim, rode a horse and developed physically. In 85 BC e. the family lost the breadwinner and, after initiation, Caesar became the head of the family, since none of the older male relatives survived.
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Start a career politician
In the 80s BC e. warlord Lucius Cornelius Cinna (Lucius Cornelius Cinna) proposed the person of Guy Julius in place of flaming (flamines), priest of the god Jupiter. But for this he needed to marry according to the solemn ancient rite of confarration (confarreatio) and Lucius Cornelius chose Caesar to marry his daughter Cornelia Cinilla (Cornelia Cinilla). In 76 BC. e. the couple had a daughter, Julia (Ivlia).
Today, historians are no longer confident in holding the rite of inauguration of Julius. On the one hand, this would prevent him from engaging in politics, but, on the other hand, appointment was a good way to strengthen the position of Caesars.
After the betrothal of Guy Julius and Cornelia, a riot occurred in the troops and the military attacked Cinnu, he was killed. The dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla was established, after which Caesar, as a relative of the opponent of the new ruler, was outlawed. He disobeyed Sulla, refused to divorce his wife and left Rome. The dictator spent a long time looking for a disobedient person, but, as time passed, he had mercy on him at the request of his relatives.
Caesar soon joined Marcus Minucius Thermus, the governor of the Roman province of Asia Minor, Asia.
Ten years ago, his father was in that position. Julius became the equites of Mark Minucius, who fought on horseback as a patrician. The first task that Term gave his conturnal was to negotiate with the Bithynia king, Nycomed IV. As a result of successful negotiations, the ruler transfers the Thermae to the flotilla to take the city of Mytlene on the island of Lesvos, which did not accept the results of the First Mithridates War (89-85 BC) and resisted the Roman people. The city was successfully captured.
For the operation on Lesbos, Guy Julius received a civilian crown - a military award, and Mark Minucius resigned. In 78 BC e. in Italy, Lucius Sulla dies and Caesar decides to return to his homeland.
In 78 B.C. e. military leader Mark Lepidus (Marcus Lepidus) organized a riot of the Italians (Italici) against the laws of Lucius. Caesar then did not accept the invitation to become a member. In the years 77-76. BC e Guy Julius tried to condemn the supporters of Sulla: politician Cornelius Dolabella (Cornelius Dolabella) and commander Anthony Hybrid (Antonius Hybrida). But he did not succeed, despite the brilliant accusatory speeches.
After this, Julius decided to visit the island of Rhodes (Rhodus) and the school of rhetoric of Apollonius Molon, but on the way there he was captured by pirates, from where he was subsequently rescued by Asian ambassadors for fifty talents. Wanting revenge, the former captive equipped several ships and captured the pirates himself, having executed them with a crucifix. In 73 g. BC. e. Caesar was included in the collegial governing body of the pontiffs, where his uncle Gaius Aurelius Cotta had previously ruled.
In 69 BC. e. died during childbirth of the second child of Caesar's spouse - Cornelia, the baby also did not survive. At the same time, Caesar’s aunt, Julia Maria, also perishes. Soon Guy Julius becomes the Roman ordinary magistrate (magistratus), which gives him the opportunity to enter the Senate. He was sent to Far Spain (Hispania Ulterior), where he took charge of financial matters and carried out the assignments of the Prophet Antistius Vetus.
In 67 BC e. Caesar married Pompeia Sulla, the granddaughter of Sulla. In 66 BC e. Guy Julius becomes the caretaker of the most important public road in Rome - the Appian Way (Via Appia) and finances its repair.
College of Magistrates and Elections
In 66 BC e. Guy Julius is elected to the magistrates of Rome. His responsibilities include expanding construction in the city, supporting trade and social events. In 65 B.C. e. he held such memorable Roman games with the participation of gladiators that he managed to amaze his sophisticated townspeople.
In 64 B.C. e. Guy Julius was the head of the Quaestiones perpetuae Judicial Commission for Criminal Proceedings, which allowed him to call to justice and punish many of Sulla's minions.
In 63 B.C. e. Quintus Metellus Pius died, freeing up the lifetime of the Great Pontiff (Pontifex Maximus). Caesar decides to run for her own candidacy. The opponents of Guy Julius are the consul Quintus Catulus Capitolinus and the commander Publius Vatia Isauricus. After numerous bribes, Caesar wins the elections by a large margin and moves to live on the Sacred Road (via Sacra) in the official housing of the pontiff.
Involvement in the conspiracy
In 65 and 63 years. BC e. one of the political conspirators, Lucius Sergius Catilina, made two attempts to carry out a coup d'etat. Marcus Tullius Cicero, an opponent of Caesar, tried to accuse him of conspiracy, but could not provide the necessary evidence and failed. Marcus Porcius Cato, the informal leader of the Roman Senate, also testified against Caesar and made Guy Julius leave the Senate in pursuit of threats.
In 62 B.C. e., using the powers of the praetor, Caesar wanted to transfer the reconstruction of the plan of Jupiter of the Capitoline (Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus) from Quintus Catulus Capitolinus to Gnee Pompeius Magnus, but the Senate did not support this bill.
After the proposal supported by Caesar, the tribune of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos to send Pompey with troops to Rome to pacify Catilina, the Senate dismissed both Quintus Tsitseliya and Gaius Julius from their posts, but the second was quickly restored.
In the fall, a trial was held against the conspirators of Catilina. One of its members, Lucius Iulius Vettius, who opposed Caesar, was arrested, as was Judge Novius Nigerus, who accepted the report.
In 62 B.C. e. Caesar's wife Pompey held a festival in their house dedicated to the Good Goddess (Bona Dea), which could be attended only by women. But one of the politicians, Publius Clodius Pulcher, got on the holiday, he dressed as a woman and wanted to meet with Pompey. Senators found out what had happened, considered it a shame and demanded a trial. Guy Julius did not wait for the outcome of the process and divorced Pompey, so as not to make his personal life publicly visible. Moreover, the spouses did not have heirs.
In Far Spain
In 61 BC e. Guy Julius' trip to Far Spain as a propraetor was postponed for a long time due to the presence of a large number of debts. Commander Mark Licinius Crassus (Marcus Licinius Crassus) vouched for Guy Julius and paid part of his loans.
When the new proprietor arrived at his destination, he was faced with dissatisfaction with the inhabitants of the Roman authorities. Caesar assembled a detachment of militias and began a fight with the "bandits." A commander with a twelve-thousand-strong army approached the mountain range of Serra da Estrela and ordered the locals to leave from there. They refused to move and Guy Julius attacked them. Highlanders across the Atlantic Ocean went to the Berlenga Islands, killing all of their pursuers.
But Caesar, after a series of thoughtful operations and strategic maneuvers, still subjugates the popular resistance, after which he was awarded the honorary military title of the emperor (imperator), the winner.
Guy Julius launched an active activity in the daily affairs of the subordinate lands. He presided over court hearings, introduced reforms to taxation, and eradicated the practice of sacrifice.
During the period of activity in Spain, Caesar was able to pay off most of his debts thanks to the rich gifts and bribes of the residents of the wealthy south. At the beginning of 60 BC e. Guy Julius prematurely withdraws his authority and returns to Rome.
Rumors about the prophet's victories soon reached the Senate and its members felt that Caesar's return should be accompanied by triumphus (triumphus) - a solemn entry into the capital. But then, before the triumphal event was completed, Guy Julius was not allowed, according to the law, to enter the city. And since he also planned to take part in the upcoming elections for the post of consul, where his personal presence was required for registration, the commander refuses to triumph and begins the struggle for a new post.
By bribing voters, Caesar nevertheless becomes a consul, along with him, the warlord Mark Kalpurnius Bibulus wins the election.
In order to strengthen their own political position and existing power, Caesar enters into secret conspiracy with Pompey and Crassus, uniting two influential politicians with opposing views. As a result of the conspiracy, a powerful union of military leaders and politicians appears, called the First Triumvirate (triumviratus - "union of three husbands").
In the early days of the consulate, Caesar began to submit new bills to the Senate. The first was the agrarian law, according to which the poor could receive land from the state, which it bought from large landowners. First of all, land was given to large families. To prevent speculation, the new landowners did not have the right to resell the plots for the next twenty years. The second bill related to the taxation of farmers in the province of Asia, their contributions were reduced by one third. The third law concerned bribes and extortion; it was adopted unanimously, unlike the first two.
To strengthen ties with Pompey, Guy Julius gave his daughter Julia for him. Caesar himself for the third time decides to marry, this time his wife becomes Calpurnia (Calpurnia), daughter of Lucius Calpurnia Pisona Caesonina (Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus).
When Gaius Julius, after the due date, resigned as consul, he continued to conquer the land for Rome. During the Gallic War (Bellum Gallicum) Caesar, displaying extraordinary diplomacy and strategy, skillfully took advantage of the differences of the Gallic leaders. In 55 BC e. he defeated the Germans who crossed the Rhine (Rhein), after which in ten days he built a bridge 400 meters long and he attacked them, the first in the history of Rome. The first of the Roman commanders invaded Great Britain, where he conducted several brilliant military operations, after which he was forced to leave the island.
In 56 BC. e. in Lucca, a regular meeting of the triumphs took place, at which it was decided to continue and develop political support for each other.
By 50 BC e. Guy Julius suppressed all rebellions, completely subjugating Rome to its former territories.
In 53 BC e. Crassus dies and the triumvirate ceases to exist. Between Pompey and Julius began a struggle. Pompey became the head of the republican government, and the Senate did not extend the powers of Guy Julius in Gaul. Then Caesar decides to raise a rebellion. Gathering soldiers who were very popular, he crosses the border river Rubicone and, not seeing resistance, captures some cities. The terrified Pompey and his close senators flee the capital. Caesar invites the remaining members of the Senate to jointly rule the country.
In Rome, Caesar is appointed dictator. Pompey’s attempts to prevent Guy Julius crashed, the fugitive was killed in Egypt, but Caesar did not accept the enemy’s head as a gift, he mourned his death. While in Egypt, Caesar helps Queen Cleopatra (Cleopatra), conquers Alexandria (AIskandariya), in North Africa joins Rome Numidia (Numidia).
The return of Guy Julius to the capital is accompanied by a magnificent triumph. He does not skimp on rewarding his soldiers and commanders, arranges feasts for the citizens of the city, organizes games and public events. Over the next ten years he was proclaimed "emperor" and "father of the fatherland." He publishes many laws, including laws on citizenship, on the structure of the state, against luxury, on unemployment, on the issue of free bread, changes the system of calculating time and others.
Caesar was worshiped and rendered great honors, erecting his statues and painting portraits. He had the best security, he was personally involved in the appointment of people to government posts and their removal.
Among the Republicans, dissatisfaction with Caesar's policies and behavior grew. He was charged with relations with Queen Cleopatra, who moved to the capital. Then Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus entered into a conspiracy to kill the dictator.
March 15, 44 BC e. at a meeting of the Senate, Brutus thrust a dagger at Caesar and he died. The only heir to Julius Caesar was his grand-nephew, Octavian Augustus, adopted by him. Read a series of articles about the assassination of Caesar and the rise of Octavin.