Famous Italians and Italians

Michelangelo Buonarroti

Michelangelo di Lodovico di Leonardo di Buonarroti Simoni (Michelangelo di Lodovico di Leonardo di Buonarroti Simoni) - the most famous painter from Italy, a genius of architectural and sculptural works, thinker of the High Renaissance and early Baroque period. 9 of the 13 popes who visited the throne during the time of Michelangelo invited craftsmen to perform work in the temples of Rome and the Vatican.

Biography

Little Michelangelo saw the light in the early morning hours of March 6, 1475 on Monday in the family of the bankrupt banker and nobleman Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni in the Tuscan town of Caprese, near Arezzo province, where his father served as a podestà ), the head of the Italian medieval administration.

Family and childhood

Two days after birth, on March 8, 1475, the boy was baptized in the church of San Giovanni di Caprese (Chiesa di San Giovanni di Caprese). Michelangelo was the 2nd child in a large family. Mother, Francesca Neri del Miniato Siena (Francesca Neri del Miniato Siena), in 1473 gave birth to the firstborn Lionardo (Lionardo), in 1477 was born Buonarroto (Buonarroto), in 1479 was born the fourth son Giovansimone (Giovansimone), in 1481, the youngest Gismondo was born. Exhausted by frequent pregnancies, the woman dies in 1481, as soon as Michelangelo was 6 years old.

In 1485, the father of a large family married a second time to Lucrezia Ubaldini di Galliano (Lucrezia Ubaldini di Galliano), who was unable to give birth to her own children and raised foster boys as her own. Unable to cope with a large family, his father gave Michelangelo to the foster family of Topolino in Settignano. The father of the new family worked as a masons, and his wife had known the child since childhood, as she was the nurse of Michelangelo. It was there that the boy began to work with clay and the first time he picked up a chisel.

To give the heir an education, his father assigned Michelangelo to the educational institution Francesco Galatea da Urbino, located in Florence (Firenze). But the student from him turned out to be unimportant, the boy liked to draw more, copying icons and murals.

First work

In 1488, the young painter achieves his goal and goes to study at the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio, where he has been learning the basics of the painting technique for a whole year. During the year of study, Michelangelo creates several pencil copies of famous paintings and a copy from the engraving of the German painter Martin Schongauer (Martin Schongauer) under the name “Tormento of St. Anthony” (“Tormento di Sant'Antonio”).

In 1489, the young man was enrolled in the art school of Bertoldo di Giovanni, organized under the auspices of Lorenzo Medici, ruler of Florence. Having noticed the genius of Michelangelo, the Medici takes him under his protection, helping to develop his abilities and fulfill expensive orders.

In 1490, Michelangelo continued his studies at the Academy of Humanism at the Medici Court, where he met the philosophers Marsilio Ficino and Angelo Ambrogini, the future Pope: Leo X (Leo PP. X) and Clement VII (Clemens PP. VII). Over 2 years of study at the Academy, Michelangelo creates:

  • Marble relief “Madonna at the Staircase” (“Madonna della scala”), 1492, exhibited in the Florentine Museum of Casa Buonarroti (Casa Buonarroti);
  • The marble relief “The Battle of the Centaurs” (“Battaglia dei centauri”), 1492, exhibited in the Casa-Buonarroti;
  • Sculpture of Bertoldo di Giovanni (Bertoldo di Giovanni).

On April 8, 1492, an influential patron of talent, Lorenzo Medici, dies, and Michelangelo decides to return to his father's house.

In 1493, with the permission of the rector of the church of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito, he studied anatomy on corpses at a church hospital. In gratitude for this, the master makes for the priest a wooden "Crucifix" ("Crocifisso di Santo Spirito") 142 cm high, which is now exhibited in the church in a side chapel.

In Bologna

In 1494, Michelangelo left Florence not wanting to participate in the Savonarola uprising and left for Bologna, where he immediately took up the order of 3 small figures for the tomb of St. Dominic (San Domenico) in the church of the same name “St. Dominic "(" Chiesa di San Domenico "):

  • "Angel with a candelabrum" ("Angelo reggicandelabro"), 1495;
  • "Saint Petronius" ("San Petronio"), patron saint of Bologna, 1495;
  • Saint Proclo, Italian holy warrior, 1495

In Bologna, the sculptor learns to create difficult reliefs by observing the actions of Jacopo della Quercia in the Basilica of San Petronio (La Basilica di San Petronio). Elements of this work will be reproduced by Michelangelo later on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (“Cappella Sistina”).

Florence and Rome

In 1495, the 20-year-old master again came to Florence, where power is in the hands of Girolamo Savonarola, but does not receive any orders from the new rulers. He returns to the Medici Palace and begins working for Lorenzo’s heir, Pierfrancesco di Lorenzo de 'Medici, creating for him the lost statues:

  • "John the Baptist" ("San Giovannino"), 1496;
  • The Sleeping Cupid (Cupido dormiente), 1496

Lorenzo asked the last statue to grow old, he wanted to sell a work of art more expensive, posing as an old find. But Cardinal Raffaele Riario, who acquired the fake, discovered a hoax, but, impressed by the work of the author, did not make a claim against him, inviting him to work in Rome.

June 25, 1496, Michelangelo arrives in Rome, where in 3 years he creates the greatest masterpieces: marble sculptures of the god of wine Bacchus (Bacco) and the Roman Pietà.

Heritage

Throughout his subsequent life, Michelangelo repeatedly worked in Rome, then in Florence, fulfilling the most laborious orders of the popes.

The creativity of the ingenious master was manifested not only in sculptures, but also in painting and in architecture, leaving many unsurpassed masterpieces. Unfortunately, some works did not reach our time: some were lost, others were destroyed intentionally. In 1518, the sculptor first destroyed all the sketches for painting the Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina), and 2 days before his death, he again ordered to burn his unfinished drawings so that the descendants would not see his creative torment.

Personal life

It is not known for certain whether Michelangelo had close relations with his passions or not, but the homosexual nature of his attraction is reflected in the maestro's many poetic works.

At the age of 57, he devoted many of their sonnets and madrigals to the 23-year-old Tommaso dei Cavalieri (Tommaso Dei Cavalieri). Many of their joint poetic works speak of mutual and touching love for each other.

In 1542, Michelangelo met Cecchino de Bracci, who died in 1543. The maestro was so saddened by the loss of a friend that he wrote a cycle of 48 sonnets, singing sorrow and sorrow for irreparable loss.

One of the young men posing for Michelangelo, Febo di Poggio, constantly asked for money, gifts and jewelry from the master in return for reciprocal love, receiving the nickname "little blackmailer" for this.

The second young man, Gherardo Perini, also posing for the sculptor, did not hesitate to take advantage of Michelangelo's favor and simply robbed his fan.

At sunset, the sculptor felt a wonderful sense of affection for a female representative - the widow and poetess Vittoria Colonna, whom she had known for more than 40 years. Their correspondence is a landmark monument of the Michelangelo era.

Death

Michelangelo's life was interrupted on February 18, 1564 in Rome. He died in the presence of a servant, doctors and friends, having managed to dictate a will, promising the Lord - the soul, the earth - the body, and relatives - property. A tomb was built for the sculptor in St. Peter's Basilica, but two days after his death, the body was transported to the Santi Apostoli for some time, and in July he was buried in the Basilica di Santa Croce in the center of Florence .

Painting

Despite the fact that the main manifestation of Michelangelo's genius was the creation of sculptures, he has many masterpieces of pictorial execution. According to the author, high-quality paintings should resemble sculptures and reflect the volume and relief of the presented images.

Battle of Kashin

The Battle of Cascina (Battaglia di Cascina) was created by Michelangelo in 1506 to paint one of the walls of the Great Council Hall in the Palazzo Apostolico, commissioned by gonfaloniere Pierre Soderini. But the work remained unfinished, as the author was called to Rome.

On a huge cardboard in the room of the Sant'Onofrio hospital, the artist masterfully depicted a soldier hastily stopping swimming in the Arno River. The horn from the camp called them to battle and the men in a hurry clutching their weapons, armor, pulling clothes on their wet bodies, while helping their comrades. Cardboard, placed in the Papal Hall, has become a school for artists such as: Antio da Sangallo, Raffaello Santi, Ridolfo Ghirlandaio, Francesco Granacci, and later Andrea del Sarto, Jacopo Sansovinozhorodzhopo, Jacopo Lorenzetto (Ambrogio Lorenzetti), Perino del Vaga and others. They came to work and copied from a unique canvas, trying to get closer to the talent of the great master. Cardboard has not survived to our time.

Madonna Doni

“Madonna Doni” or “The Holy Family” (Tondo Doni) - a round painting with a diameter of 120 cm is exhibited at the Galleria degli Uffizi in Florence. Made in 1507 in the style of "kanjiante", when the skin of the characters depicted resembles marble. Most of the picture is occupied by the figure of the Mother of God, behind her is John the Baptist. They are holding the baby Christ in their arms. The work is filled with complex symbols, subjected to various interpretations.

Manchester Madonna

The unfinished Manchester Madonna (Madonna di Manchester) was made in 1497 on a wooden board and is stored in the National Gallery in London. The first name of the picture was: “Madonna and Child, John the Baptist and the Angels,” but in 1857 it was first presented to the public at an exhibition in Manchester, having received its second name, by which it is known today.

The author depicted the Virgin Mary with bare breasts, indicating a recent feeding of the baby. Next to the Madonna is Jesus and John the Baptist, behind them two angels read the sad news in a scroll.

Position in the coffin

The position in the coffin (Deposizione di Cristo nel sepolcro) was executed in 1501 with oil on wood. Another unfinished work by Michelangelo, owned by the London National Gallery. The main figure of the work was the body of Jesus, taken from the cross. His followers carry their teacher to the tomb. Presumably, John the Evangelist is depicted in red robes to the left of Christ. Other characters can be: Nikodim (Nikodim) and Joseph of Arimathea (Joseph of Arimathea). On the left, Mary Magdalene is kneeling before the teacher, and the image of the Mother of God is outlined, but not drawn, on the lower right.

Madonna and Child

The sketch "Madonna and Child" (Madonna col Bambino) was made between 1520 and 1525 and may well turn into a full-fledged painting in the hands of any artist. It is stored in the Casa Buonarroti Museum in Florence. First, on the first sheet of paper, he drew skeletons of future images, then on the second he “built” muscles on the skeleton. Nowadays, work with great success exhibited in museums in America over the past three decades.

Leda and the swan

The lost painting "Leda and the Swan" ("Leda e il cigno"), created in 1530 for the Duke of Ferrara, Alfonso I d'Este (Italian: Alfonso I d'Este) today is known only for copies. But the duke didn’t get the picture, the nobleman who directed the work to Michelangelo commented on the master’s work: “Oh, this is nonsense!” The artist expelled the messenger and presented the masterpiece to his student Antonio Mini, whom both sisters soon married. Antonio brought the work to France, where it was bought by the monarch Francis I (François Ier). The painting belonged to the Palais Fontainebleau (Château de Fontainebleau), until in 1643 it was destroyed by Francois Sable de Noyers (François Sublet de Noyers), considering the image too voluptuous.

Cleopatra

The painting "Cleopatra" ("Cleopatra") 1534 of creation - the ideal of female beauty. The work is interesting in that there is another sketch in black chalk on the other side of the sheet, but so ugly that art critics have made the assumption that the authorship of the sketch belongs to one of the master’s students. The portrait of the Egyptian queen Michelangelo was presented by Tommaso dei Cavalieri. Perhaps Tommaso tried to draw one of the ancient statues, but the work was unsuccessful, then Michelangelo turned the sheet over and turned the squalor into a masterpiece.

Venus and Cupid

The cardboard “Venere e Amore”, created in 1534, was used by the painter Jacopo Carucci to create the painting “Venus and Cupid”. Oil painting on a wooden panel measuring 1 m 28 cm by 1 m 97 cm is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. ABOUTThe original work of Michelangelo has not survived to this day.

Pieta

The drawing “Pietà per Vittoria Colonna” was written in 1546 for Michelangelo's friend, the poetess Vittoria Colonna. A chaste woman not only devoted her work to God and the church, but also made the artist more deeply imbued with the spirit of religion. It was to her that the master dedicated a series of religious drawings, among which was Pieta.

Michelangelo repeatedly wondered if he was competing with God himself, trying to achieve perfection in art. The work is stored in the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum (Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum) in Boston (Boston).

Epiphany

The sketch “Epiphany” is a grandiose work of the artist, completed in 1553. It was made on 26 paper sheets 2 m 32 cm 7 mm high after much deliberation (multiple traces of sketch changes are visible on paper). In the center of the composition is depicted the Virgin Mary, who with her left hand removes St. Joseph from herself. At the feet of the Mother of God the baby Jesus, before Joseph - the baby St. John. On the right hand of Mary is a figure of a man not recognized by art critics. The work exhibited at the British Museum (British Museum) in London (London).

Sculptures

Today, 57 works belonging to Michelangelo are known, about 10 sculptures were lost. The master did not sign his work and the ministers of culture continue to “find” all the new works of the sculptor.

Bacchus

The sculpture of the drunken wine god from marble “Bacchus” (“Bacco”), 2 m 3 cm high, is depicted in 1497 with a glass of wine in his hand and with grape clusters symbolizing the hair on his head. He is accompanied by the goat-footed satyr. The customer of one of Michelangelo’s first masterpieces was Cardinal Raffaele della Rovere, who later refused to take the job. In 1572, the statue was bought by the Medici family. Today it is on display at the Italian Bargello Museum in Florence.

Roman Pieta

Marble Pieta (Pietà vaticana) "Mourning of Christ" 1 m 74 cm high is the first of 4 drinks created by the master. Its copies are exhibited in many temples of the world, and the original is in St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. The work was intended for the tomb of Cardinal Jean Biler de Lagraulet, who gave Michelangelo a year to meet the deadline. But it took two years to create the masterpiece, the sculpture was finished in 1499. According to the elaboration of details and the completeness of the images, this is the best work of the master.

David

David (David) with a height of 5 m 17 cm was first introduced not at the time of the victory over Goliath, but before the battle. The marble giant has become a symbol of the whole Renaissance era, its multiple copies and images have been distributed in huge circulations around the world. For the first time, the statue was put on public display in Piazza della Signoria in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence on September 8, 1504. The original work is currently in the building of the Florentine Academy of Fine Arts (Accademia di belle arti di Firenze).

Madonna of Bruges

The marble statue "Madonna di Bruges" ("Madonna di Bruges") measuring 1 m 28 cm was completed in 1504. The work was the only sculpture taken out during the life of the author from Italy.The sculpture was moved to the Belgian city of Brugge (Brugge) in the Gothic church "Notre Dame" ("Notre Dame"), where it is now.

The statue does not comply with the church rules for depicting the Madonna and Child. Mary does not look at her child and does not press her close to her. She is ready to let Jesus go to meet fate.

Moses

Michelangelo returned to work on the statue of the prophet Moses (Mosè) with a height of 2 m 35 cm for 30 years after he finished it in 1515. He constantly made changes, enclosing tension and energy inside his favorite sculpture and processing every millimeter of marble. Swollen veins on the arm, frowning eyebrows and an anxious look sometimes frighten outside viewers.

The marble statue is located in the Roman Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli, decorating the tomb of Pope Julius II (Iulius PP. II). On the head of Moses, the author depicted horns, probably misunderstanding the biblical tales that spoke in Hebrew about the presence of the prophet "karnayim". This word was translated into Italian both as “rays” and as “horns”.

Madonna de Medici

Work on the deliberately unfinished marble Madonna Medici (Madonna Medici) height of 2 m 26 cm has been going on for 13 years, from 1521 to 1534. The composition is one of the first created by the master for the Old sacristy of the Cappelle Medicee in the basilica St. Lawrence (Basilica di San Lorenzo) in Florence.

Not having time to finish the creation of the sculpture, Michelangelo leaves for Rome, and the Madonna passes into the hands of the sculptor Niccol Tribolo. The mournful look of a seated Mary is full of sadness, the baby on her knees sits in a half-turn and looks for her mother's chest.

Slaves

Two figures completed in 1513 with a height of more than 2 meters: The Risen Slave (Schiavo ribelle) and The Dying Slave (Schiavo morente) were intended for the first version of the tombstone of the monarch Julius II in San Pietro in Vincoli (San Pietro in Vincoli).

Two young men are opposed to each other: one is trying to free himself from the ropes, the other surrenders and dies in fetters. But in the final version of the sculptures of slaves was not in the sketch and they were donated by the author Roberto Strozzi. Subsequently, Roberto presented them as a gift to King Francis I. In 1793 they were transferred to the Paris Louvre (Musée du Louvre) as a national treasure.

Four more statues from the same cycle: Young Slave (Schiavo giovane), Bearded Slave (Schiavo barbuto), Atlas (Schiavo detto Atlante) and Awakening Slave (Schiavo che si ridesta ”) were begun in 1519, but were not completed by the master until leaving for Rome in 1536. Today, the sculptures belong to the Florentine Academy of Fine Arts.

Medici Tombs

Four sculptures, united by one idea, were created by Michelangelo for the Medici Chapel in Florence and located in pairs opposite each other. They are presented in uncomfortable poses, symbolizing the severity of the earthly burden for the gods. The customer was Pope Clement VII (Clemens PP. VII), who wanted to perpetuate relatives who died young.

Tombstone of Lorenzo II Medici

Marble sculptures “Morning” (“Aurora”) and “Evening” (“Crepuscolo”) 1 m 55 cm high and 1 m long 80 cm and 1 m 70 cm respectively decorate the tomb of the Duke of Lorenzo II Medici (Lorenzo de 'Medici duca di Urbino). They were finished in 1534. Morning is presented in the form of an awakening young, reclining woman. The evening is depicted as a falling asleep, muscular man.

Above the sculptures stands the contemplative marble figure of the Duke of Lorenzo ("Ritratto di Lorenzo de 'Medici duca di Urbino"), which does not have a portrait resemblance to the original, but reflects the deep, heavy thoughts of the majestic commander. It is also performed by Michelangelo in 1534.

Tombstone of Giuliano de Medici

The tomb of the second duke Giuliano de 'Medici is decorated with two more sculptures: “Day” (Giorno) and “Night” (Notte), completed in 1534. The night is 1 m 55 cm by 1 m 50 cm in the form women. Stars, a crescent moon, an owl and a satire mask are attributes of a night ready to plunge into a dream. A day measuring 1 m 50 cm by 1 m 60 cm is represented by a man full of activity, liveliness, inner fire. The seasons are crowned with the majestic figure of the buried nobleman Giuliano ("Ritratto di Giuliano de 'Medici duca di Nemours") with his head uncovered. He has armor on his chest, boots on his feet, and a scepter on his knees. All three figures are made of Michelangelo marble.

Pieta Rondanini

The last marble statue of the master, 1 m 95 cm high, “Pietà Rondanini” was completed in 1564 and exhibited at the Castello Sforzesco castle in Milan. The composition consists of two figures merged together. Their faces are full of sorrow, Mary is trying to support the emaciated body of her son, bowing her head to the inevitability of loneliness. Michelangelo left the work unfinished, bringing the sculpture closer to medieval examples. There are no fine lines and the correct proportions, but the images breathe and live, conveying to the viewer the strongest sense of maternal tenderness of the Mother of God to her untimely dead son.

Brutus

A 74 cm marble bust of Bruto was commissioned by Donato Giannotti, a fan of the killer Iulius Caesar. The work was so beautiful that in 1538 the masters persuaded to stop it. The creator, glorifying the republican mood, could be in great danger from the powers that be of the state. Today, the bust belongs to the Bargello Sculpture Museum in Florence.

Crouched boy

The sculpture "Crouched Boy" ("Ragazzo accovacciato"), completed in 1524, today belongs to the Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg. The human figure, carved from a marble cube, was originally intended for the Medici chapel. This is another unfinished job. The young man squats, squeezing the fingers of his right foot with his left hand, possibly holding back the blood flowing from the wound. The master carved the statue in such a way that nothing would break away from it even when falling from the mountain.

Work in the Vatican

To realize the whole genius of Michelangelo Buonarroti, you need to visit St. Peter's Basilica (Basilica di San Pietro) and the Vatican Museums.

The Sistine Chapel

Order for ceiling painting with an area of ​​about 600 square meters. m. "Sistine Chapel" ("Sacellum Sixtinum"), the Apostolic Palace, Pope Julius II (Iulius PP. II) gave the master after their reconciliation. Before that, Michelangelo lived in Florence, he was angry with dad, who refused to pay for the construction of his own tomb.

Previously, a talented sculptor had never done frescoes, but the monarch’s order was completed as soon as possible, painting the ceiling with three hundred figures and nine scenes from the Bible.

Creation of Adam

The Creation of Adam (La creazione di Adamo) is the most famous and beautiful fresco of the chapel, completed in 1511. One of the central compositions is full of symbolism and hidden meaning. God the father, surrounded by angels, is depicted flying in infinity. He reaches out toward Adam's outstretched arm, breathing in the soul into a perfect human body.

The Last Judgment

Fresco "The Last Judgment" ("Giudizio universale") - is the largest mural of the era of Michelangelo. Over the image measuring 13 m 70 cm by 12 m, the master has been working for 6 years, finishing it in 1541. In the center is a figure of Christ with his right hand raised up. He is no longer the messenger of the world, but a formidable judge. Near Jesus are the apostles: St. Peter, St. Lawrence, St. Bartholomew, St. Sebastian and others.

The dead look in horror at the judge, awaiting sentence. Those saved by Christ are resurrected, and the devil himself carries away the sinners.

Global flood

The Universal Flood was the first fresco painted by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the chapel in 1512. The sculptor was helped by the craftsmen from Florence, but soon their work ceased to satisfy the maestro and he refused to help outside. The image shows human fears at the last moment of life. Everything has already been flooded with water, except for a few high hills, on which people in desperation try to avoid death.

Libyan Sibyl

“Libyan sibyl” (“Libyan sibyl”) - one of the 5 depicted by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the chapel. A graceful woman with a tome is presented in half-turn. According to the assumption of art historians, the artist copied the image of the Sibyl from a posing young man. According to legend, she was a dark-skinned African woman of medium height. The maestro decided to portray a soothsayer with white skin and blond hair.

Separation of Light from Darkness

The fresco “The Separation of Light From Dark”, like the other frescoes in the chapel, is filled with a riot of colors and emotions. A higher mind, full of love for all things, has such incredible power that Chaos is unable to prevent it from separating light from darkness. Giving the Almighty a human appearance indicates that each person has the power to create a small universe within himself, delimiting good and evil, light and darkness, knowledge and ignorance.

Saint Paul's Cathedral

At the beginning of the 16th century, Michelangelo, as an architect, participated in the creation of the plan of the Basilica of Saint Peter along with the architect Donato Bramante. But the latter disliked Buonarroti and was constantly plotting against his opponent.

Forty years later, the construction completely passed into the hands of Michelangelo, who returned to the Bramante plan, rejecting the plan of Giuliano da Sangallo. The maestro introduced more monumentality into the old plan when he abandoned the complex division of space. He also increased the domed pylons and simplified the shape of the semi-domes. Thanks to innovations, the building has become whole, as if it were carved from one piece of material.

  • We recommend reading about the dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral

Capella Paolina

The painting “The Cappella Paolina” (“Cappella Paolina”) in the Apostolic Palace Michelangelo could begin only in 1542 at the age of 67 years. Long work on the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel greatly undermined his health, inhaled fumes of paint and plaster led to general weakness and heart disease. The paint spoiled his vision, the master hardly ate, did not sleep, and for weeks did not take off his boots. As a result, twice Buonarroti stopped working and returned to them again, creating two amazing frescoes.

Conversion of the Apostle Paul

“Conversion of the Apostle Paul” (“Conversione di Saulo”) - the first fresco of Michelangelo in the “Chapel of Paolin” measuring 6 m 25 cm by 6 m 62 cm, completed in 1545. The Apostle Paul was considered the patron saint of Pope Paul III (Paulus PP III) . The author depicted a moment from the Bible, which describes how to the irreconcilable persecutor of Christians - the Lord himself appeared to Saul, turning the sinner into a preacher.

Crucifixion of St. Peter

The fresco "Crucifixion of St. Peter" ("Crocifissione di San Pietro") measuring 6 m 25 cm by 6 m 62 cm was completed by Michelangelo in 1550 and became the artist's final painting. St. Peter was sentenced to death by Emperor Nero (Nero), but the condemned wished to be crucified upside down, because he did not consider himself worthy to accept death as Christ.

Many artists, portraying this scene, were confused. Michelangelo solved the problem by presenting a crucifixion scene before the erection of the cross.

Architecture

The second half of the life of Michelangelo increasingly began to turn to architecture. During the construction of architectural monuments of the Renaissance, the maestro successfully destroyed the old canons, putting into the work all the accumulated over the years luggage of knowledge and skills.

Basilica of St. Lawrence

In the "Basilica of St. Lawrence" ("Basilica di San Lorenzo") Michelangelo worked not only on the tombstones of the Medici. The church, built in 393 during reconstruction in the 15th century, was supplemented by Old Sacristia according to the design of Filippo Brunelleschi.

Michelangelo later became the author of the New Sacristy project, attached on the other side of the church. In 1524, by order of Clement VII (Clemens PP. VII), the architect designed and built the library of Laurenziana (Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana) on the south side of the church. A complicated staircase, floors and ceilings, windows and benches - every detail was carefully thought out by the author.

Pia Gate

“Porta Pia” - the gateway to the northeast of the Aurelian wall (Mura aureliane) in Rome on the ancient Nomentana road (Via Nomentana). Michelangelo made three projects, of which the customer Pope Pius IV (Pius PP. IV) approved the least expensive option, where the facade resembled a theater curtain.

The author did not live to see the end of the construction of the gate. After the gates were partially destroyed by lightning in 1851, Pope Pius IX (Pius PP. IX) ordered them to be reconstructed, changing the initial appearance of the structure.

Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri

The titular Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri (Basilica di Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri) is located on the Roman Republic Square (Piazza della Repubblica) and was erected in honor of the Mother of God, holy martyrs and divine angels. Pope Pius IV entrusted the development of the construction plan for Michelangelo in 1561. The author of the project did not live to see the completion of the work, which took place in 1566.

Poems

The last three decades of his life, Michelangelo was engaged not only in architecture, he wrote a lot of madrigals and sonnets, which were not published during the life of the author. In poetry, he sang love, glorified harmony and described the tragedy of loneliness. The first poems of Buonarroti were published in 1623. In total, about three hundred of his poems, a little less than 1,500 letters from personal correspondence and about three hundred pages of personal notes were preserved.

Interesting Facts

  1. Michelangelo's talent was manifested in the fact that he saw his work before they were created. The master personally chose pieces of marble for future sculptures and himself was engaged in their transportation to the workshop. He always kept and the shore unprocessed blocks as ready-made masterpieces.
  2. The future "David", who appeared before Michelangelo as a huge piece of marble, turned out to be the sculpture that the two previous masters had already abandoned. For 3 years, the maestro worked on a masterpiece, presenting the naked David in 1504 to the public.
  3. At the age of 17, Michelangelo had a falling out with 20-year-old Pietro Torrigiano, also an artist who managed to break his opponent’s nose in a fight. Since then, in all the images of the sculptor he is represented with a disfigured face.
  4. The “Pieta” in St. Peter's Basilica impresses the audience so much that it was repeatedly attacked by individuals with an unstable psyche. In 1972, Australian geologist Laszlo Toth committed an act of vandalism by inflicting 15 hammer blows on a sculpture. After that, “Pieta” was placed behind the glass.
  5. Favorite sculptural composition of the author of the Pieta “Mourning of Christ” was the only signed work. When the masterpiece was presented in St. Peter's Basilica, people began to speculate that its creator was Cristoforo Solari. Then Michelangelo, sneaking into the cathedral at night, knocked out the Mother of God “Michelangelo Buonarotti the Florentine sculpted” on the folds of the clothes of the Mother of God, but later he regretted his pride, never again signing his works.
  6. While working on The Last Judgment, the master accidentally fell from high forests, severely injuring his leg. He saw this as a bad sign and did not want to work anymore. The artist locked himself in a room, not letting anyone in and deciding to die. But the famous doctor and friend of Michelangelo - Baccio Rontini (Baccio Rontini) wanted to cure the wayward stubborn, and since the doors did not open in front of him, he made his way through the cellar with great difficulty. The doctor made Buonarroti take the medicine and helped him recover.
  7. The strength of the art of the master over time is only gaining strength. Over the past 4 years, more than a hundred people have sought medical help after visiting the halls with the exhibited works of Michelangelo. The statue of the naked “David”, in front of which people repeatedly lost consciousness, is especially impressive to the audience. They complained of loss of orientation, dizziness, apathy, and nausea. Doctors at the Santa Maria Nuova Hospital call this emotional state "David Syndrome."

Watch the video: Michelangelo Biography: Who Was This Guy, Really? Art History Lesson (December 2019).

Loading...

Popular Posts

Category Famous Italians and Italians, Next Article

Sophia Loren - the pearl of Italian cinema
Famous Italians and Italians

Sophia Loren - the pearl of Italian cinema

"There is a source of youth: it is your mind, your talent, the creativity that you bring into your life and the life of your beloved people. When you learn to drink from this source, you really will conquer age." - Sophia Loren Still beautiful Sophia Loren, who recently exchanged her nineteen, still pleases the eye of her fans and admirers.
Read More
Lorenzo Medici the Magnificent
Famous Italians and Italians

Lorenzo Medici the Magnificent

Lorenzo di Piero de Medici (Lorenzo di Piero de Medici) - entered the history of Italy under the name Magnificent (il Magnifico), which largely explains the important role that this outstanding statesman played in the economic, political and cultural life of the country. A talented manager, a skilled diplomat, a generous philanthropist, the patron of the representatives of art and science of the Renaissance, are all different aspects of the Florentine uncrowned ruler, who managed to turn the republic into a prosperous region and the center of European civilization during his tenure.
Read More
Raphael Santi
Famous Italians and Italians

Raphael Santi

Raffaello Santi (Raffaello Santi) - Italian artist, master of graphics and architectural solutions, a representative of the Umbrian painting school of the Renaissance. Biography Rafael Santi was born at three in the morning in the family of the artist and decorator on April 6, 1483 in the Italian city of Urbino. It is the cultural and historical center of the Marche region in eastern Italy.
Read More
Italians who became Nobel Prize winners
Famous Italians and Italians

Italians who became Nobel Prize winners

From year to year, scientists and cultural figures of Italy more and more often fall into the headlines of international publishers: they will invent something new and amazing, or they will portray something amazingly beautiful. Fortunately, as a rule, the works and merits of the most ingenious Italians are encouraged. And direct evidence of this is an impressive list of writers, poets, astronomers, biologists, physicists, as well as representatives of other professions, which absolutely deservedly became Nobel Prize winners.
Read More