Turin is a city where kings were born, lived and died. That is why among the attractions there are many royal residences, magnificent castles, museums, art galleries. Here you can see the weapons of the Savoyard kings, the church in the form of the ancient Roman pantheon, a building similar to a synagogue, depicted on a coin in two euro cents. And in one of the Catholic churches one of the most famous Christian shrines is stored - the Shroud of Turin.
Turin is located in the northwest of Rome (Roma) at a distance of 522 km, and is the administrative center of Piemonte (Piemonte). The city is located near the Western Alps (Alpi Occidentali), where the Dora Riparia (Dora Riparia) flows into the river Po (Po). On the geographical map it can be found at the following coordinates: 45 ° 04 'north latitude, 7 ° 42' east longitude.
The area of the city is 130 km ^ 2, more than 900 thousand people live in it. Thanks to this, Turin is in fourth place in Italy in terms of population.
The historic center, whose area exceeds four square kilometers, was formerly surrounded by walls. They have long been demolished, so it is believed that its territory is limited to the avenues Corso San Maurizio, Corso Regina Margherita, Corso Bolzano, Corso San Martino and Corso Vittorio Emanuele II. From the southeast side, the cent rests on the Po river.
Turin's central square is Piazza Castello: It has repeatedly become the venue for important events. So, during the 2006 Winter Olympics, Olympic champions and prize-winners were awarded here.
Castello Square has a long history, so there are many interesting sights. Here you can see a medieval fortress with a castle facade (Palazzo Madama), Reggio Theater (Teatro Regio di Torino), the prefecture's house with a covered gallery. The Armory (L'Armeria Reale) houses the largest collection of armor and weapons in Europe. In the middle of the square are mounted four fountains that hit the ground.
Piazza Castello has three large monuments:
- Equestrian monument to the knight of Italy (Monumento equestre al Cavaliere d'Italia);
- Monument to the envoy of the Sardinian army (la Statua dell'Alfiere dell'Esercito Sardo) - erected in front of Madame's palace in 1859 before the start of the Second War of Independence;
- Monument to General Duke Emanuele Filiberto (Emanuele Filiberto) - put behind the palace of Madame.
Via Palazzo di Citta '4 starts from Piazza Castello from the side of the Royal Square. Here is the royal court church of St. Lawrence (Chiesa di San Lorenzo).
Four main streets of Turin adjoin Piazza Castello. Among them is Via Garibaldi, whose length is 963 m. Therefore, although it is not the longest pedestrian street in Europe, it firmly holds the second place. Royal Square (Piazzetta Reale), where the Royal Palace (Palazzo Reale) is located, is adjacent to Piazza Castello.
The central building of the square is the Madama Palace (Palazzo Madama e Casaforte degli Acaja). Its history begins in the XIII century, when a fortress was erected on the site of the old city gate. After a hundred years, the fort was expanded, given a rectangular shape, and equipped the courtyard. Four corner towers and a covered gallery appeared.
Until the end of the XV century. the castle belonged to the genus Acaja (the youngest branch of the Savoy dynasty). When the Akayo clan ceased to exist, representatives of the Savoy dynasty used the landmark as a guest house. For example, King of France Charles VIII (Carlo VIII) stayed here during a campaign against the Kingdom of Naples (regno di Napoli). Also, festivities were held at the castle, during which the Shroud of Turin was put on display.
The castle owes its name to two eminent inhabitants who lived here in their time. At the beginning of the XVII century. Maria Cristina di Borbone-Francia settled here, by the order of which the castle was reconstructed. Sixty years later, Maria Giovanna Battista di Savoia-Nemours, another influential woman in Turin, settled here.
In the XVII century some parts of the fort were dismantled or hidden, including the old drawbridge. Nowadays, the castle looks unusual. On one side, a monument stands in front of him, fountains are broken, benches are installed. There are also columns, balustrades with statues and flowerpots. On the other side of the palace, two round dark brown towers on the sides of the building remind of the original purpose of the castle, at the top of which loopholes are visible. Along the entire height of the towers and the facade, small openings are visible where swallows nest (the townspeople called the house “the shelter of swallows”).
After the castle moved to the city, it housed an astronomical observatory, an art gallery. At different times, the house was the seat of the government, court, parliament. Now here is a museum of ancient art.
The Royal Theater (Teatro Regio di Torino), although it is considered one of the oldest opera houses in the country, actually dates back about a century: the old building was destroyed by fire in 1936, and it took forty years to reconstruct it. However, Turinians are proud of the theater and call it Royal.
The construction of the first building on Piazza Castello began in 1738 by order of the Duke Carlo Emanuele III of Savoy (Carlo Emanuele III di Savoia). The theater was built in record time: the opening took place two years later. It was a magnificent building with 2500 seats, which were located on five tiers. Teatro Regio was popular, and by the opening of each season they created two opera series (opera seria).
In 1792, the Royal Theater was closed and opened six years later, when the city was occupied by the troops of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleone Buonaparte). The repertoire was adapted to the tastes of the French public, and Bonaparte visited the theater three times.
In 1870, Teatro Regio became municipal. Thirty-five years later, it underwent a serious reconstruction: the fourth and fifth tiers disappeared, the amphitheater expanded. When the First World War began, the opera house was closed and opened after its end - in 1919 the Theater burned down almost completely in 1936: only the facade remained.
The opening of the new building took place in 1973. The facade of the eighteenth century was preserved, while the inside of the building meets the demands of the modern viewer. The hall for the audience took the form of an ellipse, and it is designed for 1750 seats.
The Royal Armory (L'Armeria Reale) has one of the richest collections of ancient weapons and armor. The Arsenal is located on Piazza Castello between the prefecture and the Royal Palace located on the neighboring square (it is part of it, so a ticket to visit the castle involves a visit to the Armory).
The idea of creating an arsenal came from the king of Sardinia, Carlo Alberto di Savoia, and in 1837 the discovery took place. Among the exhibits of the museum are not only the armor and weapons of medieval knights and later times, but also the means for defense and attack that were used by people of the Stone Age.
Here are stored weapons that belonged to the kings of Savoy. Among them, a relic of the royal house is the sword of San Maurizio. Interesting will be medals, coins, seals and precious objects from the collection of Carlo Albert of Savoy. They were placed in a special room, having previously developed furniture in the Greek style.
Since Turin is a city in which representatives of the ruling Savoy dynasty (Casa Savoia) lived for a long time, there are many palaces here. Chief among them is the Royal Palace, located on the eponymous square near Piazza Castello. But there are many other castles where the kings lived. They should definitely be visited by a tourist.
The Royal Palace (Palazzo Reale) is located on the Piazzetta Reale. From the Castello square it is separated by a trellised wall and two bronze riders, passing between which, the traveler is in front of the palace. For two hundred years, this attraction has been the main residence of the Savoy dynasty (Casa Savoia).
The modern building was built in the second half at the end of the XVI century. on the site of the Episcopal Palace and the Old Castle. His first mistress was Maria Cristina di Borbone-Francia. When the capital of a united Italy in 1865 was transferred from Turin to Florence (Firenze), then to Rome, the castle lost its significance, and kings visited it only occasionally.
In the architecture of Palazzo Reale, the masters managed to successfully combine three different styles - Rococo, Baroque and neoclassic. The facade of the palace is 170 meters long, with two higher pavilions on its right and left sides. One of them houses the Royal Library (Biblioteca Reale di Torino). Old manuscripts are collected here and even there is a self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci.
In front of the main entrance of the castle are statues of the heroes of the Greek myths Pollux and Castor. Behind the palace are the Royal Gardens (Giardini Reali). They are decorated with fountains and sculptures.
If the facade is strictly decorated outside, inside there are luxurious rooms. Here are paintings, antiques, tapestries, jewelry, in the niches of a spacious hall - statues of representatives of the Savoy dynasty. Everywhere - dazzling gold and stucco. The main staircase Scala delle Forbici, the Throne Hall, the Blue Audience Hall, and the private chambers of the kings attract attention. In total, about thirty rooms are open for visitors.
Castle Valentina (Castello del Valentino) is located on viale Pier Andrea Mattioli, 39 on the coast of the Po River. The first memory of the palace dates back to the 13th century. It was a well-fortified structure designed to protect against enemy raids. The name of the attraction is due to the relics of St. Valentine, the patron saint of lovers, who were kept in the church of St. Vitus located near the palace (not preserved).
Castello del Valentino owes its modern appearance to Maria Cristina Bourbon of France, by order of whom the building was redone in the French manner. Therefore, the attraction looks unusual: from the river side the house resembles a fortress thanks to the preserved corner towers, which rise above the facade. In front is a beautiful, graceful palace, the courtyard of which is paved with marble. On the facade - the coat of arms of the genus of Savoy.
After the death of Maria Christina, the house began to decline. When the city was captured by the French, it was sacked. Then the barracks were set up here, then the engineering school. In the twentieth century, the castle was restored, and now it houses the architecture department of the Polytechnic University of Turin (Politecnico di Torino).
Tourists can get inside only on Saturday morning, having previously agreed on a visit. If you cannot visit the palace at this time, you can take a walk in the park and admire the facade of the attraction.
The Queen's Villa (Villa della Regina) is located on 79 Strada Santa Margherita. The palace, towering on Turin Hill, is surrounded by a magnificent garden with terraces, fountains, grottoes.
He appeared at the beginning of the XVII century. commissioned by Prince Cardinal Maurice of Savoy. After his death, she changed hands, until in 1692 the niece of the French king Anne Marie d'Orléans, wife of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, turned out to be the mistress of the residence. When her husband became king, the villa was named Villa della Regina.
The new status was positively reflected in the appearance of the palace: the decor was updated, the garden changed the layout a bit. The eldest daughter Ann Marie gave the villa the features of Versailles.
After the Savoyard court was moved to Rome (late XIX century), Villa della Regina ceased to be a royal residence and for a long time remained in desolation. During World War II, she was hit hard by the bombing. At the end of XX century. The villa was restored and opened to visitors. Here you can see frescoes and paintings by eminent masters, Chinese dressers made of gilded wood. There is a pavilion in the garden where members of the intellectual club founded by Maurice of Savoy met.
Three hundred meters from the Royal Palace is the Palazzo Carignano. The construction of the landmark began at the end of the XVII century. The project was developed by Guarino Guarini (Guarino Guarini) for one of the branches of the Savoy dynasty, the Carignano family (Carignano).
The design of the castle is considered one of the most daring decisions of the Baroque era. A good example of this is the curved front staircase and a double dome above the main hall. The chambers of the castle are decorated with frescoes by Stefano Legnani (Stefano Maria Legnani).
The house has two facades. The older one is made of red brick. It is characterized by a wavy shape, and he goes to Piazza Carignano. Under the windows of the first floor you can see the frieze with the image of the Iroquois. It was made as a sign of the victory of the local regiment over this tribe. Another, more traditional, overlooks the Piazza Carlo Alberto. It appeared much later, when the parliament of a united Italy sitting here decided that the palace should be expanded. This was done in the 60s. XIX century
In this house in 1820, the first king of united Italy, Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele II), was born. Now here is the National Museum of Risorgimento (the so-called national liberation struggle for the liberation of Italy).
Turin is the city where kings lived for a long time. Therefore, the churches are special. Among them there is a temple where the Shroud of Turin is stored, as well as a church where kings prayed and praised God. Not far from the city is the basilica, where representatives of the ruling dynasty found the last refuge. The temple built in the neo-Gothic style, as well as the church, based on the Greek pantheon, will be interesting. Twin churches will also attract the attention of a curious tourist.
Cathedral of St. John the Baptist
In the Basilica of St. John the Baptist (Duomo di San Giovanni) is one of the most significant shrines of Christianity - the Shroud of Turin (indone di Torino). According to one theory, the body of Christ was wrapped in it after death at Calvary.
The relic is stored in a refractory container, inside which a special temperature is maintained. Tourists can see the shrine once every 25 years (the last time it was exhibited in 2010) for forty days. All the rest of the time, a copy of the shroud is presented to the eyes of the pilgrims and the curious.
Located Duomo di San Giovanni on the Piazza San Giovanni, just behind the Royal Palace. Built it at the end of the XV century. by order of Cardinal Domenico della Rovere. The facade was made of white Carrara marble, and chapels were placed on the sides. Two hundred years later, the Chapel of the Holy Shroud was added to the temple. At the end of the XX century. she was badly damaged by the fire, and restoration work is underway here (the shroud was not damaged).
Church of St. Lawrence
The facade of the Basilica of St. Lawrence (Chiesa di San Lorenzo) is not much different from neighboring houses. The fact that this is a temple is indicated only by the dome at the top of the building and some details on the walls. But extraordinary beauty lurks inside: in decoration it is one of the richest temples of Turin. After all, there used to be a royal chapel of the Savoy rulers, and they also kept the Shroud of Turin for a while when they brought it from France.
The temple is located on the corner of Piazza Castello and Royal Square, or rather - on Via Palazzo di Citta ', 4. The modest facade of the church was given by chance: the Savoy rulers who ordered the construction of the basilica in the XVII century. believed that nothing should distract the eye from the adjacent Royal Palace and Palazzo Madama. But inside the basilica was decorated royally.
The church itself is small, made on the principle of an octahedron, lavishly decorated in the Baroque style, and the dome with a lantern emitting light seems to soar in the air. The main altar of the temple is interesting, decorated with geometric figures, precious stones, twisted columns, gilded wooden grates. The Holy Ladder leads to it, to climb the central part of which is allowed only on the knees (twelve steps), while on the sides they climb in the usual way. The organ of the temple is placed in a case of gilded wood.
Temple of the Great Mother of God
The Temple of the Great Our Lady (Chiesa della Gran Madre di Dio) is located on the Gran Madre di Dio square, not far from the coast of the Po River, near the hills. The construction of the sights was timed to the victory over Bonaparte and the return to the throne of Victor Emmanuel I (Vittorio Emanuele I), King of Savoy. The basilica was discovered in 1831 in the presence of King Carlo Alberto (Carlo Alberto di Savoia).
Outwardly, the temple resembles a pantheon, to which a huge staircase leads. At its foot is a marble statue of Victor Emanuel I. On the right and left sides of the stairs are statues depicting Faith and Religion. Niches with statues of saints Mark and Barromeo are provided in the facade near the portal. There is a bas-relief on the pediment where the Virgin and Child stand.
Due to the peculiarities of the architectural form, the bell tower near the church was not initially provided. It was built in 1830 a little away, near Via Bonsignore.
Basilica of Superga
Although the Basilica of Superga (Basilica di Superga) is located ten kilometers from Turin, every tourist who visited the city should see it. Here they found the last refuge of the Savoy kings, and also offers excellent views of the city, the Po river, the Alps.
They built a church on a hill at the beginning of the XVIII century. According to legend, Victor Amadeus II (Vittorio Amedeo II) climbed to the top of the hill to assess the position of the enemy troops occupying Turin. At the same time, he vowed to the Theotokos that, if successful, would build a church here, and he kept his promise. When Victor Amadeus II died, he was buried in this church. Since then, it has become the burial place of the representatives of the Savoy dynasty.
In the middle of the last century, a tragedy happened here. The pilot of the plane, in which the local football team flew, lost its orientation and crashed into the temple fence ... no one survived. At the crash site, a memorial dedicated to the dead football players is now installed.
The church is located at Strada Basilica di Superga, 73. From the central square of the city you can walk to it in two hours. If there is no time for long walks, you can take a taxi (the trip will cost 20 euros) or take the funicular that leaves from Sassi station.
The twin churches (Le Chiese Gemelle), made in the Baroque style, rise on Piazza San Carlo. They are separated from each other by a narrow street.
If you face them, on the left will be the church of St. Cristina (Chiesa di Santa Cristina). In 1640, Maria Christine of France ordered her to be built in memory of her dead eldest son. But a year later the architect died, so the construction was delayed: the facade appeared seventy years later.
On the right is the church of San Carlo Borromeo (Chiesa di San Carlo Borromeo). It was named after the saint who came to the city to pray the Holy Shroud. It was built earlier, by order of Karl Emanuele I the Great (Carlo Emanuele I di Savoi) in 1619. The facade acquired a modern look in the nineteenth century.
Church of the Holy Annunciation
The Basilica of the Holy Annunciation (Chiesa della Santissima Annunziata) is located on Via Po, 45 (the street starts from Piazza Castello and leads to the river).
The first building was erected in the XVII century. The temple had a very simple structure, only one nave was provided. Then it was expanded, the choir was enlarged, two chapels were added. In the eighteenth century, Bernardo Antonio Vittone erected an altar, a wooden processing platform appeared.
The facade of the temple was finished in 1776, and a hundred years later an arcade was added to it, thanks to which the temple acquired a solemn appearance.
At the end of the XIX century. the brothers to whom the temple belonged began to experience serious difficulties with money, which negatively affected the church: it began to collapse. Therefore, in 1913 the temple was demolished, and six years later began to erect a new building, taking Roman Baroque as the basis. The construction was completed in 1934, and now many believe that the Church of the Holy Annunciation is one of the most beautiful temples in the city.
Church of St. Rita
Church of St. Rita (Chiesa S. Rita da Cascia) was built in the Neo-Gothic style at the beginning of the XX century. Therefore, its appearance is very different from other temples of the city, more reminiscent of the churches of Germany. The basilica is located on Via Vernazza, 38, away from the historical center of the city, not far from the Olympic stadium.
Turin is a city in which buildings are low, and high-rise buildings began to appear recently, mainly on the outskirts of the city. But some of them were built in the historical part of the city, which attract the attention of citizens and visitors. Among them - the first high-rise building of Turin, the Mole Antonelliana Tower, built at the end of the nineteenth century, as well as a skyscraper called "Mussolini's Finger", which the dictator ordered to erect before the Second World War.
The Mole Antonelliana tower is a symbol of Turin: it is even depicted on a coin in two euro cents. The attraction is located on Via Montebello, 20, and is visible from many areas of the city.
The tower was built in 1863 by order of the Jewish community, which decided to build a prayer house in the city with a school. The construction was commissioned by Alessandro Antonelli. He introduced a number of changes to the project, due to which the height of the house increased significantly: in the final version it was 167.5 m. This led to a rise in price of construction and longer construction periods. This did not suit the Jewish diaspora, and they refused to build the building. Therefore, the construction was frozen for several years.
Then the city bought a building from the Jewish community, offering them another plot. They decided to devote the giant tower of power to the first king of united Italy, Victor Emmanuel II. Construction was resumed, and Antonelli again called to lead. Unfortunately, he did not live one year before the end of construction, having died in his ninety year old.
The opening of Mole Antonelliana took place in 1889. It turned out to be a tall, square structure at the base, over which the dome towered. Above it, a small room with columns was arranged - Tempietto, which offers a magnificent view of Turin (you can get here by elevator).
In 1953, a strong wind tumbled down the 47-meter dome of the tower, but after eight years the construction took its original form. But this time, the architects decided to make the dome from the inside out of steel.
First, the Risorgimento Museum was located here. Currently, it houses the National Museum of Cinematography.
In Castello Square, the first Turin skyscraper in Torino Littoria, nicknamed the "Mussolini's Finger" (il dito di Mussolini), is attracting tourists' attention. This 19-story building is located on Via Giovanni Battista Viotti. Its height is 87 m, and with a spire - 109 m.
It was no coincidence that the name of the skyscraper was given: it was ordered to be built by Mussolini for use as the headquarters of the fascist party. Construction began in 1933, and the building was built in record time: in a year. They built a skyscraper with the money of the company Reale Mutua Assicurazioni, which still owns it (now there are offices and apartments).
They say that Mussolini specifically decided to build Torre Littoria between the old palaces in order to counter the new future of the departed monarchy. Nothing good came of it: a bearable by itself, surrounded by castles, the skyscraper does not look at all and, according to many, spoils the view of the historic city center.
In 2015, a landmark appeared in Turin, which is called the new symbol of the city. This is the Intesa Sanpaolo skyscraper located on Corso Inghilterra 3.
This building on 35 floors is a combination of glass, steel and green oases, and is made in the style of eco-construction. It provides for geothermal energy supply (i.e., obtained from the natural heat of the Earth), and a special facade cladding provides good ventilation on a hot summer day and thermal insulation in winter.
- We recommend reading: winter holiday tips in Italy
Residents and guests of the city can get to certain floors on certain days. The last tier, which is located at an altitude of 166 meters above the ground, will be especially interesting. The walls here are made of impenetrable glass, and therefore the view of the city is amazing. It also houses a restaurant and cafe.
To save time and money, tourists will benefit from the Torino Card. It allows you to visit many attractions of the city for free. And these are museums, fortresses, palaces that are located both in Turin and near it. A list of museums whose Torino Card gives you free access is available at the time of purchase.
The card is activated after the first use. Depending on the type, the validity of the Torino Card is two, three, five and seven days. Each museum with a single ticket can be accessed only once. At the same time, there is no need to stand in line for tickets: it is enough to present a card at the entrance. Since the name of the owner is indicated on the plastic card, you need to carry documents with you: controllers sometimes check to see if another person has used the ticket.
Another plus of the Torino Card is that its owners receive discounts when ordering excursions, buying tickets to the theater, concerts, festivals. There are also benefits for renting cars, boats, bicycles, etc.
Galleria Sabauda Gallery is located on two floors of the new wing of the Royal Palace, located on Via XX Settembre, 86. It is a collection of paintings by the rulers of the Savoy dynasty, which they presented to the Sardinian kingdom in 1860.
He founded the collection of Carl Emmanuel Charles III (Italian: Carlo Emanuele III di Savoia) after he acquired the paintings of his late cousin, Prince Eugene of Savoy (Eugenio di Savoia-Carignano). When Genova joined Sardinia, the collection increased due to paintings from the palace of the Genoese Doges.
In 1832, the collection was moved to Madame's Palace and opened to the public. But when the Senate began to sit in the building, in 1885 the assembly moved to the former building of the Academy of Sciences. Now the collection is in the new wing of the Palazzo Reale.
Here you can see paintings by masters of Piedmont, Flemish, Dutch painting. Among them are paintings by Van Dyck (Antoon van Dyck), Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn), Rubens (Rubens). There are masterpieces of Italian painters - Botticelli (Sandro Botticelli), Tintoretto (Tintoretto), Cerano (Cerano) and others. If desired, tourists can use the audio guide, which will make the tour more interesting.
The Egyptian Museum (Museo delle Antichità Egizie) is the first ever museum dedicated to Ancient Egypt. It is located on Via Academia delle Scienze, 6.
The museum is based on the collection of King Sardinia Carl Emanuel III, which he ordered to collect after he saw an Egyptian tablet from the temple of the goddess Isis. The artifact interested the ruler so much that he sent the archaeologist Vitaliano Donati to Egypt in search of similar relics. As a result, the king's collection was replenished with 300 exhibits.
For a long time, the exhibits were not put on public display, so the museum was opened much later, when the king of Sardinia, Karl Fellix, acquired the Egyptian collection of Bernardino Drovetti in 1824. This diplomat lived for many years in Egypt, representing the interests of Napoleon, and bought Egyptian artifacts. Since the theme of Egypt was popular in those days, the museum’s collection grew rapidly.
Among the exhibits of the museum are crests, jewelry, household items from the tomb of Nefertiti. The collection even has bread, which, although it looks like a lump of clay, has survived to this day. The Egyptian book of the dead, spread over the entire wall, as well as the geographic map of the world on papyrus attracts attention. The scroll listing all the rulers of Egypt, both historical and mythical characters, will be interesting. In one of the halls there are statues of pharaohs, goddesses Isis, Sekhmet. Mummies will be interesting, as well as the tools that ancient people used to mummify.
The Automobile Museum (Museo dell'Automobile) is housed at Corso Unita 'd'Italia 40. It was opened in 1960 in a spacious three-story building on the embankment of the Po River.
The museum's collection includes more than two hundred modes of transport, several dozen engines. Among the exhibits is a prototype of a car that was created according to the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, a model of racing cars from the beginning of the 20th century, a car on which Michael Schumacher drove. Inspection is accompanied by newsreels, which tells about the era to which the car belongs.
Even a women room with furniture, where everything is made from auto parts, will not leave indifferent. In the museum you can watch documentaries on cars, telling about the importance of seat belts, and lessons on crash tests.
Medieval village and fortress
A medieval village and fortress (Borgo e Rocca Medioevale) was built in Valentin Park for the Italian exhibition in 1884. Architects on the banks of the Po River recreated the town of the XV century.
The exposition is a village surrounded by walls and fortifications, inside of which are churches, palaces, fountains, houses, artisan workshops. There is also a medieval square and street. In the fortress there are prisons, barracks, a kitchen, dining rooms for servants and nobles, and much more. You can get into the village through the tower door via a drawbridge.
When the exhibition ended, the exposition was supposed to be demolished. But the town became so popular among the townspeople and guests of the city that it was decided to keep the complex. In 1942, a museum was opened here.
Museo pietro micca
Dungeon lovers can visit the Pietro Mikka Museum in Turin, located on via Guicciardini 7a. It was created in 1961 in memory of the miner Pietro Mikka, who died in 1706, blowing up the city's underground galleries, into which the French besieging Turin penetrated.
You need to go into the dungeons only with a guide who will tell you about the events of those years: a simple inspection of the exhibits will not provide specific information. In addition, the transitions here are confusing, so you can get lost.
The medieval walls and gates in Turin are almost not preserved. Only the Palace Gate (known as Porte Palatine) on Piazza Cesare Augusto was able to escape this fate. They appeared back in the 1st century. n e., and were the main gate of the city (Porta Principalis).
From Roman times, only a wall has survived, at the edges of which there are two polygonal towers. Their construction dates back to the XIII-XIV centuries. At the bottom of the wall there are four through arches: carts passed through the central ones, people passed through the extreme ones. There are windows at the top of the wall, previously covered balconies where the sentinels were located.
In the XVIII century. Porte Palatine, like other walls of the city, was supposed to be demolished. But architect Antonio Bertola convinced the authorities to change the decision. That is why the gates located in the northern part of the historical center are the only surviving entrance to medieval Turin.
The University of Turin (Università degli Studi di Torino) was founded in 1404 by the will of the rulers of the Savoy dynasty. It is one of the largest educational institutions in Italy. The main building is located on Via Giuseppe Verdi, 8.
At the time of Napoleon, the University of Turin was the second most important. When Rome became the capital of a united Italy, some professors left the school. Nevertheless, now the university is the fifth most prestigious in Italy, consists of 12 faculties. Among the well-known graduates of the institution are the writer Umberto Eco, as well as Nobel laureates in medicine, Salvatore Luria, Renato Dulbecco, Rita Levi-Montalcini.
Turin is a city in which there are a lot of parks, botanical gardens, squares, where visitors and guests of the city can relax in nature. The most famous of them are Valentina Park, where you can see the castle and visit the medieval village, as well as Perelina Park, the largest park in the city.
Valento Park (Parco del Valentino) is located between the bridges Ponte Umberto Biancamano and Ponte principessa Isabella along the coast of the Po River.
The main entrance is at Corso Massimo D'Azeglio. Presumably, the park was named after St. Valentine, who married lovers contrary to the order of the ruler. His relics are stored in the nearby San Vito Temple.
Parco del Valentino appeared in Turin in 1630 near the palace of the same name. In the nineteenth century, it underwent major changes and acquired a romantic style. Alleys, groves were ordered, a lake appeared, which transforms into frost in ice rinks. In 1898, the fountain "12 months" was installed here. It is a large pond decorated in the rococo style, along the edges of which there are twelve statues that symbolize the months of the year.
Previously, Parco del Valentino often held international exhibitions, after one of which a medieval village and fortress (Borgo e Rocca Medioevale) remained here. Then a flower alley, an alpine slide, a rose garden appeared in the park.
In the park, to the left of the castle of Valentin, is the University Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico dell'Università di Torino). Many valuable flowers and trees grow here, and there is also a scientific library. In it you can see the herbarium, which collected 700 thousand species of plants, as well as paintings by masters of the XVIII-XIX centuries. with the image of flora.
Park Pelerina (Parco della Pellerina) is the largest park in the city: its area is 83.7 hectares. It is located far from the center, on the western outskirts. The Dora Riparia River flows through the park, the channel of which has been changed within the park to give it the desired shape.
The park is officially called Parco Carrara: it was named after Mario Carrara, a university professor who refused to swear an oath to the fascists. But the name did not take root: Turintins persistently call it Drape. That was the name of the nearby cheese factory.
The park began to equip in the 30s. last century. During the war, work was suspended, and continued after its completion.
The park acquired its current form in the 80s. It has a swimming pool, tennis courts, soccer fields, rollerblading and biking trails. The attention of visitors is attracted by two artificial lakes, where swans, ducks, and coots live.
Those wishing to wander the Turin hills can relax in the Europa Park (Parco Europa), the main entrance of which is located on Piazza Freguglia. This is a very beautiful, well-kept place with a magnificent view of the city. The botanical garden, where many interesting plants grow, will also be interesting. There used to be a cable car in the park, but in the last century it was damaged and they decided not to restore it.
How to get there
Sixteen kilometers from the city, near Caselle Torinese, is the Caselle International Airport of Turin. Every day he sends and receives about 400 flights to 33 destinations, of which 18 are international. There is no direct flight from Moscow, you need to get by transfers, for example, via Prague.
From the airport to the city you can get by bus, taxi or train (the Dora railway station is located nearby). The journey takes about twenty minutes.
Turin's main train station, Torino Porta Nuova, is located in the southern part of the city center, at Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 58. It is very convenient for tourists who come here for a day to see the sights. The station accepts trains from many regions of Italy, as well as from neighboring countries.
- See instructions: how to buy train tickets for Italy
Turin Central Bus Station is located near the main station. Buses come from all over Italy, neighboring and distant countries (Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic).